Do you ever feel confused about some of the terminology being used when discussing speech and language? Check out this handy handout:
Language is different from speech.
Language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following:
Pragmatics (Social Language) involves using language for different purposes, changing language according to the needs of the listener, and following rules for conversations.
Speech is the verbal means of communicating. Speech consists of the following:
When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely (expressive language), then he or she has a language disorder.
When a person is unable to produce speech sounds correctly or fluently, or has problems with his or her voice, then he or she has a speech disorder.
More on Fluency...
Fluency is the smooth flow of speech. Most children will develop a smooth speaking pattern. However, the rhythm or flow of speech can be impaired by pauses, interjections, hesitations, repetitions of sounds, words, parts of words, or phrases, or blocks or prolongations of speech. Sometimes, physical symptoms, such as blinking or facial grimaces may accompany this behavior.
There are many reasons a child's speech may be "bumpy:"
•A child may be nervous or excited about speaking to new people.
•A child may repeat words or parts of words to "stall" while he/she thinks of a word in English, or translates from his/her first language.
•A child may be going through a normal period of "developmental disfluency," which affects 25% of young children. This often happens when a child's language is blossoming and the brain is working faster than the mouth can say the words.
•Rarely, the child's difficulty speaking significantly interferes with the child's ability and/or desire to speak. When the child's first language is not English, this occurs in the child's native language as well as in English. In these cases, the child may have a speech fluency problem that requires attention from the Speech-Language Pathologist.
Go to the ASHA link for information about each grade level. Lots of great information will be found there!
Speech and language skills are essential to academic success and learning. Language is the basis of communication. Reading, writing, gesturing, listening, and speaking are all forms of language. Learning takes place through the process of communication. The ability to communicate with peers and adults in the educational setting is essential for a student to succeed in school.
Children with communication disorders frequently do not perform at grade level. They may struggle with reading, have difficulty understanding and expressing language, misunderstand social cues, avoid attending school, show poor judgment, and have difficulty with tests.
Difficulty in learning to listen, speak, read, or write can result from problems in language development. Problems can occur in the production, comprehension, and awareness of language sounds, syllables, words, sentences, and conversation. Individuals with reading and writing problems also may have trouble using language to communicate, think, and learn.